What is an economy? An economic system based on frugality, limitation of consumption, and recycling of materials or services. (It substitutes the linear [produce, consume, discard] model with a closed-loop model.)
In the collaborative or sharing economy,
The alternative economic system, is based on sharing goods or services between individuals through exchange platforms on the Internet. (It privileges use rather than possession and takes forms as diverse as crowdfunding, colocation, carpooling, or car-sharing .)
Branch of economics that assesses the costs of environmental degradation and advocates effective environmental policies.
System of economic organization in which natural mechanisms tend to ensure alone, to the exclusion of any intervention by monopolies or the State, the balance of supply and demand.
The business Economics
The branch of economics is more particularly devoted to the firm.
study of phenomena relating to public finances, not in their legal aspects, but in their economic and social consequences
The economic system which is based on market mechanisms, on the principle of the free play of supply and demand, and which limits state intervention (as opposed to a planned or command economy ).
System realizing, within certain companies, a collaboration of public capital and private capital; coexistence of a public sector and a private sector in the economy.
A parallel economy or second economy,
A phenomenon characteristic of the economies of certain countries, reveals the search for private gains obtained on the margins of the official economic current.
Part of the economic system deals with the production and consumption of goods and services (as opposed to the monetary or financial economy [money, credit, stock exchange]).
Branch of economics that studies the production, exchanges, and transformation of agricultural and food products in society.
Branch of the economy that covers all activities that do not depend on the public sector or the capitalist enterprise (associations, cooperative movement, mutuality, etc.).
Set of local activities and services offering salaried work to people in precarious situations and voluntary work to those with free time, in order to reduce exclusion and contribute to social cohesion.
the underground or informal economy
All activities producing goods or services, generating undeclared, legal, or illegal income.
The economy is linked to the development of firms using new information and communication technologies, in particular the Internet. (It originated in the United States at the approach of the 21st century, before reaching most of the developed countries. )