What is an economy?


Circular economy,

What is an economy? An economic system based on frugality, limitation of consumption, and recycling of materials or services. (It substitutes the linear [produce, consume, discard] model with a closed-loop model.)

What is an economy?

  • In the collaborative or sharing economy,

The alternative economic system, is based on sharing goods or services between individuals through exchange platforms on the Internet. (It privileges use rather than possession and takes forms as diverse as crowdfundingcolocationcarpooling, or car-sharing .)

  • environmental economics

Branch of economics that assesses the costs of environmental degradation and advocates effective environmental policies.

  • Market economy,

System of economic organization in which natural mechanisms tend to ensure alone, to the exclusion of any intervention by monopolies or the State, the balance of supply and demand.

  • The business Economics

The branch of economics is more particularly devoted to the firm.

  • financial economy,

study of phenomena relating to public finances, not in their legal aspects, but in their economic and social consequences

  • liberal economy,

The economic system which is based on market mechanisms, on the principle of the free play of supply and demand, and which limits state intervention (as opposed to a planned or command economy ).

  • mixed economy

System realizing, within certain companies, a collaboration of public capital and private capital; coexistence of a public sector and a private sector in the economy.

  • A parallel economy or second economy,

What is an economy?

A phenomenon characteristic of the economies of certain countries, reveals the search for private gains obtained on the margins of the official economic current.

  • real economy

Part of the economic system deals with the production and consumption of goods and services (as opposed to the monetary or financial economy [money, credit, stock exchange]).

  • rural economy

Branch of economics that studies the production, exchanges, and transformation of agricultural and food products in society.

  • social economy

Branch of the economy that covers all activities that do not depend on the public sector or the capitalist enterprise (associations, cooperative movement, mutuality, etc.).

  • Solidarity Economy

Set of local activities and services offering salaried work to people in precarious situations and voluntary work to those with free time, in order to reduce exclusion and contribute to social cohesion.

  • the underground or informal economy

All activities producing goods or services, generating undeclared, legal, or illegal income.

  • new economy,

The economy is linked to the development of firms using new information and communication technologies, in particular the Internet. (It originated in the United States at the approach of the 21st  century, before reaching most of the developed countries. )

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